Current methods for professional cleaning of implant or titanium transmucosal elements include the set of plastic ultrasonic tips or hand instruments followed by the prophy cup polishing method or various types of floss and buffing strips. The design of the permanently cemented super structure often does not allow adequate access for the prophy cup, especially in interproximal areas, and plastic instruments are not very efficient for the removal of plaque or mineralized deposits.
In addition, the prophy cup and paste method may leave residual paste at the implant/soft tissue interface area. Airpolishing consists of directing, water, air and sodium bicarbonate towards the tooth or implant surface, resulting in efficient removal of bacterial plaque and soft mineralized deposits.
Dental root form implants are manufactured from a highgrade titanium alloy, the surface of which consists of a micro layer of titanium oxide. The implant surface can also be treated by plasma spraying, acid etching, sandblasting or coated with HA. The removal of plaque and calculus deposits from these implant surfaces with Dental Instruments designed originally for cleaning natural tooth surfaces can result in major alterations to the delicate titanium oxide layer. Altering the surface topography by roughening the surface may enhance calculus and bacterial plaque accumulation.
Resulting scratches, cuts or gouges may also reduce the corrosion resistancy of titanium, and corrosion and mechanical debris can accumulate in the surrounding tissue. The aim of procedures for debriding dental implants( dental implant machine ) should be to remove microbial and other soft deposits, without altering the implant surface, and thereby adversely affect biocompatibility. Increased surface roughness can lead to an increase in bacterial accumulation and resultant soft tissue inflammation. Because of the critical nature of the implant/soft tissue relationship, metal ultrasonic scaler tips, hand scalers or curettes should not be used as they have been shown to significantly alter the titanium surface.
If inflammation becomes established in the periimplant tissues, pocketing and bone loss can develop, which if left untreated, will result in the loss of the implant. Clinicians worldwide are advocating surgical regenerative procedures to restore or repair lost periimplant tissues.These techniques attempt to achieve the repair or regeneration of lost periimplant tissues,and rely on making the implant surface biocompatible with the healing tissues. This implies a detoxification of the previously infected implant surface.